Therapeutic Humour

Therapeutic Humour and Physiological Response

Therapeutic Humour and Medicine

Therapeutic Humour and Psychotherapy

Therapeutic Humour and Nursing

Humour in Crisis Situations

Therapeutic Humour at Work

Therapeutic Humour Skills and Development

Humour and Wellbeing


Therapeutic Humour

Buxman, Karyn (ed.) 1995, Nursing Perspectives on Humor. Staten Island, NY: Power Publishers,.

Cousins, Norman. 1979. Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient. New York: W. W. Norton.

Klein, Allen. 1989, Healing Power of Humor. Los Angeles CA: Tarcher

McGhee, Paul. 1996, Health, Healing and the Amuse System. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Robinson, Vera. 1991, Humor and the Health Professions, 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack.

Wooten, Patty. 1996, Compassionate Laughter. Utah: Commune-A-Key.

Wooten, Patty 1996, Humor: An antidote for Stress. Holistic Nursing Practice., 10 (2). pp. 49-56.

Armfield, N R., Bradford, N., Spitzer, P., Smith, A C. 2011, 'Brief Communication, Humour Sans Frontieres: The Feasibility of Providing Clown Care at a Distance,' Telemedicine and e-health, vol. 17, no. 4.

Armfield, N R., Smith, A C., Spitzer, P., White, M M 2011, Humour Sans Frontieres?: Experiences of clown doctoring at a distance by telemedicine.  

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Therapeutic Humour and Physiological Response

 Berk, L. & Tan, S. 1989, Eustress of mirthful laughter modifies natural killer cell activity. Clinical Research, 37, 115.

Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A., Fry, W.F., Napier, B.J., Lee, J.W. Hubbard, R.W. Lewis, J.E. & Eby, W.C. 1989, Neuroendrocrine and stress hormone changes during mirthful laughter. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 298(6), 390-396.

Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A. Nehlsen-Cannarella et al, Humour associated laughter decreases cortisol and increases spontaneous lymphocyte balstogenesis. Clinical Resident 36

Cousins, Norman. Head First: the Biology of Hope. NY NY: Dutton, 1989.

Dillon, K.M., Minchoff, B., & Baker, K.H. 1985-86, Positive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. International Journal of Psychiatry, 15(1), 13-18.

Fry, W.F. 1992, The physiologic effects of humor, mirth, and laughter. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267(13), 1857-1858.

Fry, William F. 1971, Laughter: Is It the Best Medicine? Stanford M.D. 10 16-20.

Fry, William F. 1971, Mirth and Oxygen Saturation of Peripheral Blood. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 19 76-84.

Fry, William F. 1977, The Respiratory Components of Mirthful Laughter. The Journal of Biological Psychology 19 39-50.

Fry, William F. 1994, The Biology of Humor. HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 7.2 111-126.

Fry, W., Savin, W.M., 1988,  Mirthful Laughter and Blood Pressure, Humour: International journal of Humour Reasearch 1, p. 49-62

Kamei, T., Kumano, H., & Masumura, S. 1997, Changes of immunoregulatory cells associated with psychological stress and humor. Percept Mot Skills, 84 (3 Pt 2), 1296-1298.

Lefcourt, H., Davidson-Katz, K., & Kueneman, K. 1990, Humor and immune system functioning. International Journal of Humor Research, 3 (3), 305-321.

Sultanoff, S. (Summer, 1999). Examining the Research on Humor: Being Cautious About Our Conclusions the "President´s Column" in Therapeutic Humor, Publication of the American Association for Therapeutic Humor, Vol. XIII, (3), P. 3.

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Therapeutic Humour and Medicine

Black, Donald W. 1984, "Laughter". J Am  Medical Association, 252:21, 2995-8.

Cousins, Norman. 1976, "Anatomy of an Illness". New England J of Medicine, v295, 1458-1463.

Cousins,Norman. 1989,  “Head first: the biology of hope”. New York: Dutton

Haig, R.A., The Anatomy of Humour: Biopsychosocial and Therapeutic Perspective, Springfield, IL: Thomas

Lambert, N.K., Lambert, R.B 1995,  The effects of humour on Secretory Immunoglobin A levels in school aged children, Pediatric Nursing 21 p. 16-19

Levinson, W., Roter, D., Mullooly, J., Dull, V., & Frankel, R. 1997, Physician-patient communication; The relationship with malpractice claims among primary care physicians and surgeons. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277(7), 553-559.

Spitzer, P 2001,  The Australian Family Physician journal Vol30, No.1, Jan 2001 the lead articles are on the subject of "Is Humour Medicinal?"

Van Blerkom, L 1995, Clown doctors: shaman healers of Western medicine. Med Anthropol Q, 9 (4), 462-75.

Weisenberg, M., Tepper, I., & Schwarzwald, J. 1995, Humor as a cognitive technique for increasing pain tolerance. Pain, 63 (2), 207-212.

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Therapeutic Humour and Psychotherapy

Dunkelbau, Edward. 1987, "´That´ll Be Five Cents, Please!´: Perceptions of Psychotherapy in Jokes and Humor." Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 307-314.

Eberhart, Elvin (Cy). 1993, "Humor as a Religious Experience" Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press, pp. 97-120

Farrelly, Frank, and Michael Lynch. 1987, "Humor in Provocative Therapy." Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, pp. 81-106.

Fay, Allen M.D. 1989, ©1978, Making Things Better by Making Them Worse. NY NY: Hawthorne Books.

Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh, Eds. 1993, Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.

Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh. 1987, Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy: Advances in the Clincial Use of Humor. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.

Gelkopf, Marc, and Mircea Sigal. 1995, "It is Not Enough to Have them Laugh: Hostility, Anger, and Humor-Coping in Schizophrenic Patients." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 8.3, pp. 273-284.

Gelkopf, M. & Kreitler, S. 1996, Is humor only fun, an alternative cure or magic? The cognitive therapeutic potential of humor. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 10(4), 235-254.

Gillikan, L. S., and Peter Derks. 1991, "Humor Appreciation and Mood in Stroke Patients." Cognitive Rehabilitation. 9, pp. 30-35.

Goodheart, Annette. 1994, Laughter Therapy. Santa Barbara, CA: Stress Less Press.

Grossman, Saul A. 1988, "The Use of Jokes in Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 149-52. Haig, Robin Andrew. The Anatomy of Humor: Biopsychosocial and Therapeutic Perspectives. NY: Thomas.

Hageseth, Christian. 1988, A Laughing Place. Fort Collins CO: Berwick Pub Co.

Killinger, Barbara. 1977, "The Place of Humour in Adult Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, pp. 153-56.

Kisner, Bette. 1994, "The Use of Humor in the Treatment of People." The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger, pp. 133-156.

Kubie, L. 1971, The destructive potential of humor in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 861-866.

Lefcourt, H. and Martin, R. 1986, Humor and Life Stress. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Marcus, N. N. 1990, Treating those who fail to take themselves seriously: pathological aspects of humor. Am J Psychother, 44 (3), 423-432.

Martin, R.A. & Dobbin, J. P. 1988, Sense of humor, hassles, and immunoglubulin a: evidence for a stress-moderating effect of humor. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 18(2), 93-105.

Martin, R.A., &. Lefcourt, H.M. 1983, Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 520-525.

McGhee, Paul E.; & J.H Goldstein (eds). 1983, The Handbook of Humor Research (Volumes I & II). NY NY: Springer-Verlag.

Porterfield, A.L. 1987, Does sense of humor moderate the impact of life stress on psychological and physiological well-being? Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 306-317.

Prerost, F. J. 1984 "Evaluating the Systematic Use of Humor in Psychotherapy with Adolescents." Journal of Adolescents, vol. 7, pp. 267-76.

Richman, J. 1996, Points of correspondence between humor and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 33(4), 560-566.

Rosenheim, E. & Golan, G. 1986, Patients´ reactions to humorous interventions in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 40(1), 110-124.

Salovey, P., Rothman, A., Detweiler, J. B., & Steward, W. T. 2000, Emotional states and physical health. American Psychologist, 55(1), 110-121.

Seligman, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. 2000, Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14.

Seligman, M. 1998, Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life (2nd ed.). New York: Pocket Books.

Shaughnessy, Michael F., and Terresa M. Wadsworth 1992, "Humor in Counseling and Psychotherapy: A 20-Year Retrospective." Psychological Reports, vol. 70, pp. 755-762.

Sultanoff, S. May, 1994, Therapeutic uses of humor. The California Psychologist, Publication of the California Psychological Association, 25.

Titze, Michael 1987, "The ´Conspirative Method´: Applying Humoristic Inversion in Psychotherapy." Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 287-306.

Valiant, G. E. 2000, Adaptive mental mechanisms: Their role in a positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55(1), 89-98.

Volcek, Mary Kay 1994, "Humor and the Mental Health of the Elderly." The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger, pp. 111-122.

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Therapeutic Humour and Nursing

Bellart, Judy 1989, Humor: a therapeutic approach in oncology nursing. Cancer Nursing, 12:2.

Buckwalter, K. C., Gerdner, L. A., Hall, G. R., Stolley, J. M., Kudart, P., & Ridgeway, S. 1995, Shining through: the humor and individuality of persons with Alzheimer´s disease. J Gerontol Nurs, 21 (3), 11-16.

Buffum, M. & Brod, M. 1998, "Humor and well-being in spouse caregivers of patients with Alzheimer;s disease" Applied Nursing Research, 1998 Feb, 11(1) pp. 12-18.

Dean, R. A. 1997, Humor and laughter in palliative care. J Palliat Care, 13 (1), 34-39.

Dossey, B.M., Keegan, L., Guzzetta, C.E., Kolkmeier, L.G. 1995, Play and Laughter, Moving towards harmony, in eds. Holistic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice, Kolkmeier L.G., Gaithersburg M.D., Aspen Publishers, , p. 315-330

Green, L. 1990, "Feeling Good: Humor in the facility". J of Long Term Care Administration, 1990:Fall, 5-8.

Herth, Kaye. 1990, "Contributions of humor as perceived by the terminally ill". Am J of Hospital Palliative Care, 7:1.

Hulse, J. R. 1994, Humor: a nursing intervention for the elderly. Geriatr Nurs, 15 (2), 88-90.

Hunt, A. H. 1993, Humor as a nursing intervention. Cancer Nurs, 16 (1), 34-39.

Kennedy, P., & Marsh, N. J. 1993, Effectiveness of the use of humor in the rehabilitation of people with SCI: a pilot study. J Am Paraplegia Soc, 16 (4), 215-218.

Klein, Allen 1998, The Courage to Laugh. Los Angeles, Tarcher.

Kuhlman, Thomas 1988, "Gallows Humor for a Scaffold Setting: Managing aggresive patients on a maximum security forensic unit". Hospital & Community Psychiatry, v39, 1085-1090.

Matz, A. Brown, S.T. 1998, "Humor and pain management". Journal of Holistic Nursing, 16 (1) 68-75.

McGhee, P. 1998, Rx: laughter. RN, 61 (7), 50-53.

Richman, J. 1995, The lifesaving function of humor with the depressed and suicidal elderly. Gerontologist, 35 (2), 271-273.

Ritz, Sandy 1995, "Survivor Humor and Disaster Nursing" In Buxman, K. (ed), Nursing Perspectives on Humor. Staten Island,NY: Power Publications.

Robinson, V. 1991, Humor and the Health Professions, 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack.

Rosenberg, Lisa 1991, "Clinical Articles: A qualitative investigation of the use of humor by emergency personnel as a strategy for coping with stress". J of Emergency Nursing, 17:4.

Showalter, S. E., & Skobel, S. 1996, Hospice: humor, heartache and healing. Am J Hosp Palliat Care, 13 (4), 8-9.

Simon, Jolene M. 1987, "The therapeutic value of humor in aging adults". J of Gerontological Nursing, 14:8, 9-13.

Simon, Jolene M. 1988, "Therapeutic Humor: Who´s fooling who?". J of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Service, 26:4, 8-12.

Simon, Jolene M. 1988, "Humor and the older adult: Implications for nursing". J of Advanced Nursing, v14, 441-446.

Simon, Jolene M. 1988, "Humor and Its Relationship to Perceived Health, Life Satisfaction, and Morale in Older Adults". Issues in & Mental Health Nursing, v11, 17-31.

Simon, Jolene M.1989, "Humor techniques for oncology nurses". Oncology Nursing Forum, v16, 667-670.

White, C. & Howse, E. 1993, "Managing Humor; When Is It Funny - And When Is It Not?" Nursing Management, 24 (4), pp. 80-92.

Wooten, Patty. 1999, "Humor, Laughter and Play - Maintaining Balance in a Serious World" In Holistic Nursing Handbook. Dossey, B. and Keegan, L (eds.). Baltimore, Aspen Publishing.

Wooten, Patty 1996, "Humor: An antidote for Stress". Holistic Nursing Practice, 10 (2). pp. 49-56.

Wooten, Patty 1997, "You´ve Got to be Kidding! Humor Skills for Surviving Managed Care". Dermatology Nursing, 9 (6) pp. 423-428.

Wooten, Patty 1992, "Humor as therapy for patient and caregiver" in Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Guidelines to Success. Philadelphia PA: J.B. Lippincott Co.

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Humour in Crisis Situations

Klein, Allen 2001,  "How Can You Laugh at a Time Like This?" AATH (online).

Harris David A c1988, The Jokes of Oppression: The Humour of Soviet Jews., Izrail Rabinovich. Northvale N.J.:J Aronson.

Moran, C.C. and Massam, M. 1997, An evaluation of  humour in emergency work. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 3, 26-38.

Moran, C.C. 1990, Does the use of humour as a coping strategy affect the stresses associated with emergency work? International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 8,  361-377.

Sultanoff, Steve Oct 2001  "Using Humor in Crisis Situations". AATH (online). 

Wooten, Patty, and Ed Dunkelblau Oct 2001, "Tragedy, Laughter, and Survival". Nursing Spectrum (online).

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Therapeutic Humour at Work

Barreca, Regina, 1991 They Used to Call Me Snow White . . . But I Drifted: Women´s strategic use of humor. NY NY: Viking-Penguin Pub.

Blumenfeld, E., & Alpern, L. 1994, Humor at Work. Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers.

Kushner, Malcolm 1990, The Light Touch. NY NY: Simon & Schuster.

Morreall, John 1997, Humor Works. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, Inc.

Paulson, Terry 1989,  Making Humor Work Los Altos CA: Crisp Publishing,.

Weinstein, Matt 1997,  Managing to Have Fun. New York: Simon and Schuster

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Therapeutic Humour Skills and Development

Bates, Roger 1995, How to be Funnier, Happier, Healthier and More Successful Too! Minneapolis: Trafton Publishing,

Lipman Steve 1991, Laughter in hell: the use of humour during the Holocaust.. Northvale, N.J:J Aronson Inc.

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Humour and Wellbeing

Dossey, L 1996, Now You are fit to Live”: humour and health, Alternative Therapies 2, p. 8-13, 99-100.

Kraus, P Lefcourt, Herbert M & Martin, Rod A. 1986, Humour and life stress: antidote to adversity Lefcourt, Herbert M. New York; Berlin: Springer-Verlag,

Siegel, B  Love, medicine & Miracles  Harper Perennnial

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